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CILMI-BAARISTA - SUNTA-SOOMAALIYA

 

QASHINKA IYO SUNTA HALISTAA EE LOO DHOOFIYO DUNIDA SADDEXAAD: MACNAHA IYO UJEEDOOYINKA QORSHAHAN GURRACAN IYO SIDUU U SAAMEEYEY SOOMAALIYA IYO AFRIKA
Bashir Sh. Mohamed (PhD)
shakiib@hotmail.com
Updated: December 10, 2000

Bogga:  Hordhac | 1aad | 2aad | 3aad | 4aad | 5aad | 6aad | 7aad | 8aad |

Qaybta 1aad

Sida la ogyahay waddamo badan oo ka mida bahda loo yaqaan "dunida soo koraysa" ayaa waxay bar tilmaameed u noqdeen hawl-wadeennadda iyo hoggaanka sare ee waxa afka qalaad loogu yaqaan Ecomafia.

Maxay tahay ecomafia? Waa nooc ka mida Mafia-da caalamiga ah oo si gaar ah ugu takhasustay ka dheefsashashada dhoofinta qashin noocyo badan oo kala duwan ah balse dhammaantiis ah mid aad halis u ah. Ecomafia-du waxay ku xad-gudubtaa qawaaniinta caalamiga ah ee loogu talagalay inay xakameeyaan bey'adda ama degaanka ha ahaado berriga, hawada, ama baddaha e. Si kastabase, mararka qaarkood, ecomafia-du waxay garab iyo gacan ka haysataa madax sare oo ka mida Dawladaha qashinka dhoofinaya iyo hay'adohooda kala duwan sida kuwa dhaqaalaha, hay'adaha sirdoonka iyo xitaa cutubyo ka mida ciidanka qalabka sida ee waddamadaas.

Hawl-galka ugu weyn ee Ecomafiyada ayaa ah mid ku salaysan sidii loogu dhoofin lahaa dunida soo koraysa, gaar ahaan Africa iyo Latin America, qashinka iyo sunta halista ah ee ka soo baxa warshadaha dunida horumartay gaar ahaan kuwa la xiriira soo saarista awoodda nukliyeerka, warshadaha sameeya kiimikada (acids, milayaal aad sun u ah, rinjiyo dhacay, iwm), daawooyinka dadka iyo xoolaha, kuwa loo adeegsado bacriminta ciidda iyo dhirta (chemical fertilizers) iyo sunta lagula dagaallamao cayayaaanka iyo dulinka kale ee dhirta oo dhacday, iwm. Waxaa kale oo wasakhdaas halista ahi noqonkartaa dambaska ama boorka ka soo hara marka la gubo qashinkaas halista ah. Qashimmo kale oo ay tahay in si gaar ah gacanta loogu dhigo loona dhawro (special hazardous waste materials) ayaa iyana kamida sida haraaga qashimmada isbitaallada, shaybaarrada chemicals-ka, warshadaha caagga, iwm.

Waddamada iyo degaanada ay sida ba'an u hardiyeen hawlgallada aan sharciga waafaqsanayn ee ecomafia-du ayaa waxaa safka hore kaga jira Dalka iyo degaanka Soomaaliya. Waxaa kaloo kamida waddamada ay Soomaaliya kula baratanto martigelinta qashinka halistaa Benin, Gunea-Bissau, Nigeria, Mozambique (Africa), Venezuela, Haiti iyo Santa Domingo (Latin America).

Guud ahaan, arrintu waa mid aan fac yarayn. Waxay bilaabatay ama markii ugu horraysay wax laga ogaaday bilowgii sanadihii 1970-kii markaasoo ay soo shaac bexeen warbixinihii ugu horreeyay ee la xiriiray heshiisyo qarsoodi ah oo dhexmaray waddamo Afrikaan ah iyo shirkado waaweyn oo laga lahaa waddamada Maraykanka, Faransiiska, Jarmalka, Ingiriiska, Midowgii Soofiyeeti, Talyaaniga iyo Switzerland. Si kastaba (ha ahaatee), taariikhda ay mahtalakadani (dhibaatada) ku leedahay waddamada soo koraya ee ay saamaysay ayaa ah mid ay ku kala duwanyihiin waddamadaasi. Sidoo kale waxaa aad u kala duwan sababaha loogu doorto waddan inuu noqdo saldhigga iyo halka loo waaridayo mahtalakadaas aadka u weyn. Tan dambe waxay inta badan ku xirantahay nooca "partner"-ka ama jaalka ecomafia-du ku leedahay dalkaas (mid dawli ah mise dad dawladda ka madaxbannaan).

SABATA UGU WEYNI WAA SABOOLNIMADA IYO XOOLO-RAADIS AAN XAD LAHAYN

Sida la wada ogyahay waddamada soo koraya ayaa intooda badani yihiin kuwo aad sabool u ah oo aad ugu baahan lacagaha adag ee suuqyada caalamigaa wax ka goyn kara si ay deednna isugu dayaan inay wax ka qabtaan xaaladda aadka u liidata ee dibudhaca dhaqaale, faqriga iyo nolol-xumada shucuubtooda haysta. Baahidaasi waxay mararka qaarkood keentay in xubno Dawladaha waddamadaas ka mid ahi ay ka adkaysan waayeen ama ka af-xagsanwaayeen kaddib markii ecomafiya-du ugu ballanqaadday inay haddii waddamadaasi qashinkaas aqbalaan ay deedna bedel u helayaan lacag adag oo mararka qaarkood kaba badan GDP-ga ama dakhliga guud ee waddankaas.

Tusaale waxaa u noqon kara xaaladda jaalka dawligaa ee ecomafia-da: Sanadkii 1988-kii ayaa dawladda Benin ee Afrikada Galbeed wada-xaajood dheer kaddib heshiis kula gashay dalka Faransiiska inay ka qaadato qashin aad u farabadan oo u badan nooca haraaga nukliyeerka ee radioactive-ka ah Dowladda Faransiiskuna u hormariso lacag dhan US$ 1.6 milion islamarkaana intii soddon sanaa Faransiisku waddankaas ka kaalmeeyo xagga dhaqaalaha (American university, 1996). Nasiib wanaag kacdoon dadweynaha ka yimi awgood heshiiskaasi ma noqon mid meel-mara inta la ogyahay. Halkaas waxaa laga dareemayaa inaan dhoofinta sunta halista ahi ahayn mid mar-kasta dhuumaalaysi iyo qarsoodi ku salaysan ee ay tahay mid marar badan ay ka dambayso siyaasad cad oo dawladaha qashinka lihi ku soo rogaan kuwa faqiirka ah.

Markastase Dawladdu ma aha jaalka ama partner-ka ecomafiya-da ee in badan waxaa bedela dad iskood u madax-bannaan oo si ay maaliyaddooda khaas-ahaaneed si aada ugu kobciyaan arrintan ka dheefsada. Tannna waxaa tusaale u noqonkara: sannadkii 1987-kii ayaa waxaa heshiis islagalay shirkado Talyaani ah iyo nin u dhashay dalka Nayjeeriya (Koko Deal). Heshiisku wuxuu dhigayey in talyaaniga laga dhoofiyo qashinkaas halista ah oo lagu kaydiyo isagoo fuustooyin ama barmiillo ku jira ninkaas u dhashay Nayjeeriya maqsinno iyo dhul uu lahaa islamarkaana bishiiba laga siiyo US$ 100 oo khidmad ah barmiilkiiba. Heshiiskan ayaa isagu fulay waxaana laga warhelay oo kaliya markii barmiiladii bilaabeen inay sii-daayaan suntii ku jirtay. Aakhirtu, inkastoo shaqaale badan oo u dhashay Nayjeeriya oo loo adeegsaday raridda qashinkaasi ay ku nafwaayeen, qashinkii dib ayaa loogu celiyey Talyaaniga oo isna markiisa diidi-doona in dalkiisa dib loo soo geliyo. Waxay socotay arrintaasi ilaa sannadkii 1992-kii (qodob dambbe ayaan kaga hadlli doonaa taas).

Waxaa kaloo warbixino badani caddaynayaan in intii uu socday dagaalki sokeeyey ee soomaaliya siiba sanadihii hore ee sagaashanaadkii ashkhaas soomaali ah oo isugu jiray kuwo magacooda ku socday iyo kuwo "magac dowlad soomaaliyeed" ku doodayeyba ay la gorgortameen heshiisna lagaleen shirkado reer galbeed ah, siiba kuwo talyaani iyo swizerland isugu jira, si ay kuwan dambbe qashinkaas halista ah oo gaaraya ilaa 500 oo kun oo tan sannadkiiba ay soomaaliya ugu waaridi lahaayeen kuwa horana nacfi ama maal yar u mulkin lahaayeen (eeg sheekada ku saabsan soomaaliya arrinteeda ee gadaal ka imandoonta).

Akhri Bogga Xiga....

Qore: Bashir Sh. Mohamed
PhD / Researcher
Email: shakiib@hotmail.com

 

 

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