UN Resolution 2093 endorses Statebuilding Mission for Somalia
The Resolution 2093 adopted by the UN Security Council on March 6, 2013 endorses
the long overdue partnership mission between the Federal Government of Somalia
and the International Community for the peacebuilding and statebuilding of
Somalia. The mission is ambitious, complex and treacherous but the right one.
The significance of the Resolution is historic for several reasons. First, it
ends the more than two decades the international community has been avoiding the
responsibility of addressing the statelessness of Somalia in difference to other
African failed states. Second, it reaffirms the commitment of the US government
towards the peacebuilding and statebuilding for Somalia. Third, it merges the
conflicting strategies pursued by the individual or group members of the
international community for their self interests. Fourth, it moves Somalia from
the regional level management and supervision to UN level partnership.
The Resolution addresses five issues, namely the African Union forces in Somalia
(AMISOM) , the human rights and protection of civilians, the lifting of arms
embargo imposed on Somalia from 1992, the role of the United Nations in Somalia,
and the violations of the ban on the charcoal export.
The Resolution renews the deployment of the AMISOM forces until March 6, 2014
with the full support of the international community. AMISOM forces are ordered
to carry out their tasks in full support of the sovereignty, territorial
integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia. They are also subject to
accountability, transparency and criminal prosecution for any human rights
The Resolution dissolves the United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS)
and establishes a United Nations Mission headquartered in Mogadishu with the
responsibilities of supporting among others the Somali ownership of the
peacebuilding and statebuilding agenda and the efforts of the Federal Government
to manage and coordinate the international assistance, particularly on security
sector reform. The US Permanent Representative to the UN, Ambassador Susan E.
Rice stated that the Resolution answers President Hassan Sheikh Mohamed’s call
for “one door to knock on.”
The Resolution demands the protection of civilians, with particular emphasis on
women, children and journalists. It also requires the Federal Government to
implement all signed action plans to end the use of child soldiers, increase
women’s participation in decision making bodies, enforce the prohibitation of
forced displacement of civilians in any part of the country, and to afford
justice to all victims.
The Resolution makes clear that the lifting of the arms embargo on the Federal
Government of Somalia is in recognition of its responsibility to protect its
citizens. In support, the international community is urged to provide increased
and coordinated timely support to the Federal Government so that it can
implement the internationally approved Somali National Security Sector Reform
Plan (SNSSRP). According to some reports, six Somali military brigades of
roughly 11,000 forces have been trained under the European training program
conducted in Uganda or under programs offered by Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti,
Sudan, Italy and other countries. These forces need command and control centers,
buildings, training, uniforms, modern arms, regular salaries and other
compensations like the members of the Federal Parliament for carrying out their
national duties and facilitating the departure of foreign forces from Somalia
before March 6, 2014.
The arms embargo remains on all non state actors and forces not under the
Federal Government’s jurisdiction and control. The UN Security Council is
satisfied with the Federal Government’s commitment to peace, stability and
reconciliation across Somalia including at the regional level.
The Resolution expresses the UN Security Council’s concern about the continuous
violations of the Somali and United Nations ban on charcoal exports. Thus, the
Resolution orders the full cooperation with the Task Force appointed by
President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud. The Council awaits the recommendations of the
Federal Government of Somalia based on the findings of the Task Force for
resolving the charcoal issue.
There are many serious challenges and obstacles which could interfere with the
realization of the peacebuilding and statebuilding mission endorsed by the
international community. Some of the principal challenges are coming from the
international community itself.
The commentary of Cedric de Coning titled, “Understanding Peacebuilding as
Essentially Local,” documents the dilemma facing the Federal Government in
dealing with the powerful international partners and explains how “each
international partner acting independently and rationally according to its own
self interest contributes to undermining the resilience of the local government
the partner want to support.” It has been reported that most of the energy and
time of the Federal Government is spent to service the needs of the
international community rather that the needs of the Somali people.
Another obstacle is the lack of significant international financial support
tailored to the urgent priorities assigned to the Federal Government daily,
monthly and yearly. The unprecedented support of the international community has
yet to transform into financial contributions for implementing the
interdependent components of the statebuilding mission.
The political and military involvement of Kenya and Ethiopia in Somalia under
IGAD panel has so far created complications and discord. A relation of
cooperation conducted and maintained at National levels is critical for
Somalia’s long term stability.
The limited financial and human resources capacity of the Federal Government to
produce a quick and comprehensive strategic political, economic, institutional
and security plans that responds to the dynamics, templates and preferences of
each member of the international community constitutes great obstacle. This
limitation has been exacerbated by the small number of Cabinet Ministers with
huge responsibilities but with quasi no qualified staff and job descriptions.
There is also a persistent rumor that the Federal Government is under the tight
control of few individuals of religious affinity with obscure agenda. Not
dispelling this kind of rumor, it could compound with other recycled accusations
peddled by the elements who chose the President and the Prime Minister as target
of their political attack.
Another challenge is the tension between the tribalist/satellite enclave
federalists and nationalist federalists. While there is No Federal Member State
as of today in accordance with the Provisional Constitution, there are
continuous accusations for constitutional violations labeled against the Federal
Government in not consulting with a Federal Member State. The fact remains that
the source of legitimacy of the Federal Government belongs to the legalized
common consensus 4.5 clan formula of political powersharing until such a time
the alternative one man one vote electoral system envisaged in the provisional
constitution is implemented.
The disagreement between Puntland and Federal Government has nothing to do with
decentralized or centralized federalism or with Puntland being member or part of
the Federal Government. It is just a political brinkmanship. The communities in
Puntland as other communities are associated with the Federal Government through
their members of the Federal Parliament but the Puntland State Entity as Ahlu
Sunna Wal Jama and GalMudug State Entities is not part or member of the Federal
The secession claim of the Northern Regions of Somalia (Somaliland) is another
source of challenge that needs to be addressed. Statebuilding of Somalia should
not be held hostage to the disastrous past political power abuses which deserve
investigation and determination of culpability, punishment and compensation.
The UN Resolution 2093 offers great opportunity to the people of Somalia. The
Federal Government must tackle the reconciliation among Somalis with an honest,
serious and substantive political dialogue , policies and actions with the aim
of achieving the shared goal of one nation one people.
In his unique constitutional responsibility, the President of the Federal
Government in collaboration with other leaders must strive to secure the unity,
social harmony, political integration, national defense and respect of the rule
of law throughout the country. The value of citizenship, which grows with
patriotism, freedom, equality, justice, sense of altruism and respect of the
Islamic values, must be instilled in the conscience of all Somalis for better
Mr. Mohamud M Uluso
Faafin: SomaliTalk.com | March 12, 2013